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**Dynamics II course 2018**Lecture: Monday, 14-16, room S3121

Prof. Dr. Gerrit Lohmann

Tutorial: Monday, 16-17, room S3121

Tutors: Saeid Bagheri, Anna Pagnone

**starting April 16, 2018 with the lecture**

The focus of the course is to identify the underlying dynamics for the atmosphere-ocean system. This is done through theory, numerical models, and statistical data analysis. It has been recognized that the atmospheric and oceanic flow binds together the interactions between the biosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and atmosphere that control the planetary environment. The fundamental concepts of atmosphere-ocean flow, energetics, vorticity, wave motion are described. This includes atmospheric wave motion, extratropical synoptic scale systems, the oceanic wind driven and thermohaline circulation. These phenomena are described using the dynamical equations, observational and proxy data, as well basic physical and mathematical concepts. Exercises complement the lessons.

Specific aspects:

- Dynamical concepts for climate dynamics: Bifurcations, Feedback analysis
- Instabilities in the atmosphere-ocean system and the dynamics of waves
- Statistical approach of fluid dynamics
- Ocean circulation and atmospheric dynamics
- Climate variability patterns
- Reconstruction of climate, instrumental and proxy data
- Fundamental models: Stochastic climate model, Stommel's box model etc.

Literature:

- Holton, J.R., Introduction to Dynamical Meteorology, Academic Press
- Gill, A., Atmosphere-Ocean Dynamics, Academic Press
- Dutton, J.A., The Ceaseless Wind, Dover
- Olbers, D.J., Ocean Dynamics, Springer
- Cushman-Roisin, B., ENVIRONMENTAL FLUID MECHANICS
- Cushman-Roisin, B. & Beckers, J.-M., Introduction to Geophysical Fluid Dynamics: Physical and Numerical Aspects
- J. Marchal, R. A. Plumb, 2008. Atmosphere, Ocean and Climate Dynamics: An Introductory Text. Academic Press, 344 pp; videos pdf
- R. H. Stewart, 2008: Introduction To Physical Oceanography, online Version: http://oceanworld.tamu.edu/home/course_book.htm
- T. F. Stocker, 2011. Introduction to Climate Modelling. Springer. SBN 978-3-642-00773-6
- B. Saltzman, Dynamical Paleoclimatology - A generalized theory of global climate change, Academic Press, San Diego, 2002, 354 pp.
- N. Gershenfeld, The nature of mathematical modeling, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2003, 344 pp.
- H. Goose, Climate system dynamics and modelling, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2015, 358 pp.
- The Princeton companion to mathematics / Timothy Gowers, editor ; June Barrow-Green, Imre Leader, associate editors. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-691-11880-2
- Statistical Analysis of Climate Series Analyzing, Plotting, Modeling, and Predicting with R Pruscha, Helmut 2013, VIII, 176 p. (link)
- Kämpf, J., 2009: Ocean Modelling for Beginners Using Open-Source Software. Springer. (link)
- Kaper, H.G., Engler, H., 2013: Mathematics and Climate. SIAM. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-611972-60-3

**A script will be provided:**

Gerrit Lohmann: Ocean Fluid Dynamics: Concepts, Scaling and Multiple Equilibria.

132 pp. Lecture Notes 2018

with Examples

exercises on paleo server

studIP

weathertank

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4 CP, Mandantory course in pep

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__Preliminary time table:__**April 9:**

no lecture (Chapter 1)

Repeat the material of Dynamics I

Prepare your own laptop (instal R) For programming issues, we will start to work with examples. Please download the open source software R (http://cran.r-project.org/),

for nice features, you may also download Rstudio: http://www.rstudio.com/ (there is also a nice tutorial, and hands-on courses for beginners and even R experts).

**April 16:**

14-16: Lecture 1 (GL)

Overview of Dynamics II (Chapter 4)

Fluid Dynamics, Non-dimensional parameters, dynamical similarity

Elimination of the pressure term and vorticity

16-17 Practice and Tutorial: (GL)

Exercise 1 distributed

**April 23:**

14-16: Lecture 2 (Christian Stepanek)

Lecture about programming: bash, csh, cdo (Chapter 2.2)

programming_course_intro_netcdf_cdo_shell 2018

cdo_examples 2018

16-17: Tutorial (CS): Exercise 1 collected,

Exercise 2 distributed

**April 30:**

Lecture 3 (Martin Wegmann)

14-16: Intro into R for Dynamics, Rmarkdown

(Chapter 2.1)

R in 2018

16-17: Tutorial (MW)

Exercises in R

Exercise 2 collected

Exercise 3 distributed

**May 7:**

14-16: Lecture 4 (GL)

Rayleigh-Bénard convection and the Lorenz system

Bifurcations

(Chapter 5.3; Chapter 2.3)

16-17: Tutorial (SB)

Exercise 1 discussed, Exercise 3 collected, Exercise 4 distributed

**May 14:**

14-16: Lecture 5 about Ocean Dynamics (GL)

Coriolis effect

Scaling of the dynamical equations

Geostrophy

Vorticity

Wind-driven ocean circulation

(Chapter 6.1-6.6)

16-17: Tutorial (SB)

Exercise 3 discussed, Exercise 4 collected, Exercise 5 distributed

**May 21: Pentecost: Holiday in Germany**, no lecture

**May 28:**

14-16: Lecture 6 about Atlantic deep ocean circulation (GL)

Vorticity dynamics

Simple model of meridional overturning

(Chapter 6.7, 7.1, 7.2) Application: Climate-Box-Model

Model scenarios

Possible Projects in Dynamics II (please ask)

16-17: Tutorial (SB)

Exercise 4 discussed, Exercise 5 collected, Exercise 6 distributed

**June 4:**

14-16: Lecture 7 about Shallow water equations and waves (GL)

Rossby, Gravity, Kelvin waves

Equatorial waves: Theory of Matsuno

Plain waves

Scaling

(Chapter 8)

16-17: Tutorial (SB)

Exercise 5 discussed, Exercise 6 collected, Exercise 7 distributed

**June 11:**

14-16: Lecture 8 about Stochastic climate model (GL)

Coarse-graining and filtering, kinetoc models, entropy production (Chapter 3.5)

Scaling: Brownian motion and stochastic climate model (Chapter 7.3)

The Boltzmann Equation and Navier Stokes Equation

Simulation set-up of the Rayleigh-Bénard convection

Application: Lattice Boltzmann Dynamics

(Chapter 3, Chapter 7.3)

16-17: Tutorial (AP)

Exercise 6 discussed, Exercise 7 collected, Exercise 8 distributed

**June 18:**

14-16: Lecture 9 about Climate variability and dynamics (MW)

pdf of the Lecture

Climate dynamics and circulation (Arctic Oscillation, ENSO, blocking )

15-17 Tutorial (AP):

Exercise 7 discussed, Exercise 8 collected

**June 25:**

14-16: Lecture 10 about Teleconnections (GL)

Practice: PaLib, correlation and composite maps, significance

(Chapter 10)

16-17 Tutorial (AP):

Exercise 8 discussed

Homework: Test exam

**July 2:**

11:30-12:45: Lecture 11 (GL) at AWI

Summary of Dynamics

14:00 - 15:00: AWI Ice core Lab

15:20-16:00 Tutorial (CS): Exercise 2 discussed

**July 9:**

14-16 Tutorial (AP): Re-Questions to exercises and test exam

**July 30:**Exam (written, 10-12), room

The exam is based on the exercises and the general content of the lecture.

Following the rules of pep.